Surnames in the Middle English Period: the 12th through 14th centuries

Baron Edwin Fitzlloyd, OL, OP

Mattias T. Lofvenberg’s book Studies on Middle English Surnames provides an explanation of the
practice used in the formation of English surnames in the 12th, 13th, and 14th centuries. This
includes both a listing of the prepositions which occur in names from period sources and a listing
of the actual surnames as well. All of the names in the text are drawn from period sources. The
following two lists show, firstly, the above mentioned prepositions and, secondly, a list of the
surnames included in the test.

I. The prepositions – (parenthesis show the linguistic origins)
Aboue(n) – ‘above’ (on-bufan, later, abufan)
At – ‘at, by, near, in, on’ (æ t)
By – ‘by’ (bi,be)
Binethe – ‘beneath, below’ (beneodan)
Bisouthe – ‘south of’ (besudan)
Boue – ‘above’ (bufan)
In – ‘in, among’ (in)
Of – ‘of’ (of)
On – ‘on,at’ (on)
Ouer – ‘over’ (ofer)
Under – ‘under, beneath’ (under)
Up, (up(p)e, oppe) – ‘on, close beside’ (uppan)

These prepositions are all acceptable period forms when used in combination with a noun (such
as Church) or Wall or Moor) or with a particular place name to form Middle English surnames.

II. The Surnames
Aker, Aldehage, Aler, Alert, Apeldor, Apelton, Apse, Assh

Bache, Bakhous, Ball, Baase, Bargate, Barwe, Beche, Bechet, Beght, Bem, Bench,
Bencroft, Benith, Ber, Bernurne, Bergh, Berhacch, Bern, Bernet, Bernhull, Berton, Bye,
Bile, Birche, Birchet, Bysshe, Blakefenn, Blakeford, Blakehull, Blakehurst, Blakelond,
Blakestok, Blakeston, Blakestrod, Blakethorn, Blakethurne, Blakewell, Blyndwell, Blythe,
Bokholt, Boghe, Borstall, Bot, Both, Bothel, Bour, Bourne, Box, Breach, Brede, Bryche,
Brok, Brokhole, Broklond, Brodmed, Brodeherd, Brodeford, Brodehamm, Brude, Brugg,
Bruggende, Buyton, Burggate, Burgh, Burytoun, Burlond, Burnebrigg, Bussh, Buttme

Cart, Chalk, Cherlewode, Chert, Chirchard, Churche, Churchgate, Churchey,
Churchende, Churchestighel, Churchull, Clay, Claper, Clauwe, Clee, Clench, Cliue,
Cloud, Cluse, Cokshete, Coctun, Cogg, Colebrok, Coll, Colverhaus, Comb,
Combsheued, Comp, Cote, Cotstedel, Coumed, Cradel, Cresse, Croft, Croftesende,
Cross, Crouch, Curtgate, Curtmell.

Dale, Damm, Dell, Delue, Dene, Denn, Derefold, Dergate, Derneford, Dik, Diker, Dingle,
Dyssh, Dywe, Doun, Dounende, Doungate, Droue, Dunye, Duntun

Ee, Egg, Ey, Eyland, Eldebury, Eldechirche, Ellen, Elm, Elond, Ende, Erthelond, Estcote,
Esterford, Esthacch, Esthall, Esthus, Estlithe, Estmull, Eston, Estrode, Euer, Eues, Ew,
Ewelm

Fayrehale, Fayrehope, Fairetrow, Fare, Feld, Feldesende, Fenbrigg, Fenegle, Fenn,
Fern, Fernefeld, Ferthing, Finhaghe, Finhei, Finnyng, Fisshar, Fysshwere, Flagge, Flede,
Flet, Flode, Flodegate, Folkelond, Fold, Folefenn, Forapple, Ford, Foremerssh, Forlang,
Forthey, Foss, Foul, Founte, Foxtwychen, Fryelond, Frithe, Fur, Furgbite, Furs

Garslond, Garston, Gate, Gatelond, Gerd, Gerdbury, Gildenehall, Gildhall, Glade, Glynd,
Godeford, Gogle, Goldbrok, Golde, Goldhord, Goldore, Goltsmith, Gore, Gorst, Gote,
Gourle, Grafton, Grase, Grauet, Grene, Grenedene, Grenestret, Grenewey, Greue,
Grype, Groue, Gure, Gusel

Hacch, Haghe, Hagheyate, Hahewode, Hay, Haycroft, Haygrave, Hale, Haleway, Hall,
Halleghet, Hals, Haluehid, Hamm, Haneholt, Harpathe, Harpe, Hasel, Haselet, Haselyng,
Hatt, Hauekfeld, Hauen, Hauthorn, Hawyng, Hegge, Heghehecch, Heghelond, Heghetun,
Heging, Heldele, Helfaker, Hell, Hemm, Herwyk, Herle, Hertefeld, Herth, Hes, Heth,
Hethdoun, Hethende, Hethfeld, Hid, High, Hilde, Hildewey, Hithegate, Hok, Hokerston,
Hole, Holbrok, Holegraue, Holestret, Holewey, Holy, Holylond, Holyok, Holywell, Holock,
Holt, Hombrech, Homwerth, Homwode, Hon, Hoth, How, Hull, Hundred, Hurche, Hurne,
Hurnelond, Hurst, Hurteputt, Hurtle, Hus, Huth

Ildelond, Imphaghe, Inhok, Ith

Lake, Layhton, Layn, Lamputt, Landscharem Lanem Lanendem Lagaker, Lee, Legh,
Leye, Leyecroft, Leynde, Leme, Lenn, Lympet, Lynch, Lind, Lithe, Loke, Lod, Loft,
Lomeyate, Lond, Londesende, Longebregg, Longelond, Loscroft, Lote, Louecote,
Louethorn, Louewyche, Low, Lude, Lupe, Lupeyste

Malthus, Manewode, Mapol, Marleputt, Med, Medene, Medende, Medyete, Medeweye,
Men, Menechey, Merk, Mere, Merebrok, Mersh, Merche, Mesbrok, Messebrugg, Middel,
Middelny, Middelton, Midlane, Mont, Mor, Morende, Morhacch, Morhaus, Morlond,
Motstow, Mulkstret, Muleham, Mulelane, Mulhacch, Mull, Muned, Muthe

Narewe, Nedre, Netherende, Netherton, Newhausen, Newelond, Nhutbym (sic.),
Niwehall, Niweton, Niwode, Nonnechirche, Northwall, Northcote, Northeton, Northyete,
Northhous, Northweye, Notteclive.

Obright, Ok, Okebench, Oket, Okle, Oldecroft, Oldehall, Oldehull, Oldelond, Lodstret,
Onred, Orchard, Ore, Oteslade, Otlond, Ouelde, Ouen, Ouer, Ouerton, Oues, Oulton

Pall, Park, Parrock, Parkgate, Patebrok, Pathe, Patte, Pek, Pend, Penmull, Penn,
Peshaghe, Pygherygg, Pil, Pyrye, Plasch, Platt, Pleyshamel, Pleystede, Pleystow, Plock,
Pluche, Port, Pott, Poukeney, Prewell, Pull, Pund, Pundfold, Purybrigg, Putt

Quelm

Rake, Radeclive, Ragge, Rek, Rede (Rade), Rededen, Redeford, Redhull, Redeland,
Redemere, Redeslo, Redet, Redewald, Redewyk, Rew, Riche, Rydebrok, Ryp,
Rysbrugg, Rithe, Rokele, Rode, Rodgate, Rogate, Rogh, Rose, Rotihelde, Rouenhey,
Rouet, Roughmere, Rout, Rowebern, Rowehok, Rowende, Roweneton, Ruden, Rudig,
Rugefoss, Rugg, Rughawe, Rugwey, Rune, Rupel, Russh, Russhet

Sale, Salin, Saly, Samesbrugg, Sandnapp, Sandhelde, Sandhill, Sandlane, Schawe,
Schelde, Scheperode, Schidyard, Schirholt, Sedde, See, Segh, Seld, Sele, Selehamm,
Sell, Selure, Sende, Sengel, Seten, Seth, Shamele, Shard, Shepewasshe, Shet,
Shirmark, Sholuer, Shupen, Shurte, Shute, Shuttemull, Sich, Sydeny, Synderford, Slade,
Slape, Slym, Slo, Sloghtre, Slutte, Smythem Smithford, Smole, Snape, Sned, Sneppe,
Soghewey, Sole, Soler, Sond, Sparr, Splott, Stake, Stakyng, Stanbrugg, Standen,
Stanstret, Stapel, Stapleton, Stappe, Stegher, Stomp, Ston, Stonesende, Stonhall,
Stonhull, Stonhous, Stonputt, Stonrock, Stow, Strem, Stret, Stretende, Stryde, Strod,
Strond, Stubb, Stumbell, Sullyng, Sund, Sunder, Suthes, Suthetun, Suthhale, Suthhous,
Swam, Swere, Swererelgh (sic.) Swylle

Tail, Telgh, Thele, Thete, Thylle, Thorn, Thornfrithe, Thrope, Thurne, Tye, Tyele, Tilthe,
Tithe, Todhurst, Tordehell, Torr, Torregg, Tote, Toun, Tounesende, Tour, Trandel,
Treberg, Trounton, Trow, Tunbergg, Tungem Tunyng, Turneygate, Twychen, Twystride,
Twyten.

Uppteon

Verdelegh, Vilde, Vildre

Wagge, Waldhacch, Wale, Walecote, Wall, Warde, Ware, Water, Watergate, Waterlad,
Waterlet, Watelupe, Watershype, Wederok, Wey, Weylete, Weld, Welhelde, Well,
Wellesheued, Wem, Wenden, Wennok, Werewode, Were, Werne, Westbern, Westcomp,
Westcote, Westdene, Westlithe, Westlond, Weston, Westrugg, Whamm, Wheol.
Whitedik, Wehitehouse, Whytelake, Whiteston, Whytewell, Wyk, Wyehall, Wyche,
Wydebrok, Wydestret, Wyl, Wyldemersch, Wyldemer, Wynche, Wynd, Wyndehull,
Wynerd, Wysek, Wytesend, Wetheghet, Wythy, Wytlond, Wode, Wodesbrigg, Wodecote,
Wodegate, Wodegatehous, Wodehacch, Wodehall, Wodehamm, Wodehey, Wedehous,
Wodehous, Wodelond, Wodende, Wodewyk, Woding, Wolfaghe, Wolfho, Wolputt,
Wonyng, Worth, Worthin, Wortwey, Wotten, Wrosne.

Source:
Lofvenberg, Mattias T. Studies on Middle English Names. London: Williams & Norgate,