Greetings Populace! As many of you know, tomorrow night is our monthly business meeting, the details for which can be found on the Baronial Calendar or the Facebook Event. We have quite a bit of business and would greatly appreciate the attendance and input of our populace. Here is the agenda. 1) The zoom meeting … Read more
We’ve got an event coming up in 8 DAYS! It’s right around the corner, and it’s going to be held in Discord. Some folks are new to Discord and might be nervous about trying it out. We want to help you with that. There are EIGHT opportunities between now and the event to join discord … Read more
That’s right, the final NCA Class of the Summer 2020 offering is now available for watching! Check out the video below View them all on the Newcomer Acadmey website! Catch all of the videos on the Bryn Gwlad YouTube Channel Join us on October 3 to celebrate our Newcomer Academy Graduates at the Bryn Gwlad … Read more
What: Clothier’s Guild MeetingWhen: 24 SeptemberTime: 6pm – 9pmWhere: BG Discord Server, #guild-meetings channel Join us in Discord for our monthly Clothiers Guild meeting! Theme is most useful accessory: fancy or plain, made or bought. Show and tell your purse, hat, belt, ruff, garter, veil, hair-lacing, sewing kit, partlet, hood… Or just come on by … Read more
Friendly reminder, that tomorrow night (Tuesday, 22 September, 7PM) is our weekly populace hangout! Join us in discord and chat. Tune into Minecraft builder streams. Hang out with friends. Join in for rapier drills. When you join the server, you’ll start out in the #welcome channel You’ll need to post a short intro of yourself … Read more
Have you seen someone making great SCA art? Have you seen someone doing awesome research? Have you seen someone demonstrating combat skills? Have you seen someone teaching? Have you seen someone volunteering to help with things? Have you seen someone you think should be recognized for what they’re doing? Our Fall Event is fast approaching!This … Read more
Good afternoon, Bryn Gwlad! Our event is fast approaching, and I am looking for a few people who are…. 1. Familiar with (or willing to learn about) software like OBS for screen recording 2. Available on 3 October and can attend a class or two during our fall event 3. Able to share the recording … Read more
We are at the middle mark of our month-long building competition in Minecraft, and I have been blown away by the enthusiasm, creativity, and collaboration people have shown to creating Bryn Gwlad, Castleton, Hellsgate, Shadowlands, Northkeep, and so many places and spaces in our server. Lord Tuathal O’Sheils imported topographical map data of the state … Read more
Join us tonight for a virtual populace hangout in Discord! https://discord.gg/kCT4fRu Introduce yourself if you are new to the server Join the “populace” voice channel Want to brush the rust off your rapier muscles? Join us for an hour-long (come and go as you like) session with warm up, stretches, and rapier strengthening drills https://discord.gg/kCT4fRu … Read more
We have a busy night tonight! Tonight is our weekly populace hangout in Discord. Join the server, hang out, talk, see people’s faces. Orazio and I will be running rapier drills starting at 7pm to 8pm in Discord. All skill levels welcome. Join us in the tuesday-training voice channel. We will do: 6 minute warmup … Read more
The most recent NCA class, Events and Volunteering, is now available to watch on our YouTube Channel!! We are in the process of collecting the recording files for the other classes from this summer, and will add them to the playlist as we get the files. In service, kolfinna inn kyrra Otarsdottir BG Webmin
Looking for a way to see some awesome garb, silly dancing, fun songs, and SCA folks? Checkout these two playlists with SCA Dance Challenges and SCA Glow Challenges! Watch the playlists below, or view the entire playlist from our YouTube Channel! Do you have videos or recordings of Bryn Gwlad activities or classes? Want them … Read more
The Bryn Gwlad Newcomer’s Academy 2020 session is well underway and we have had a fantastic turn out of newcomers from near and far! Thank you to all our attendees and our fantastic teachers who have seamlessly moved to an all-virtual academy. Our next class, Awards and Court, will occur Monday, August 31, 2020 and … Read more
Our virtual event is quickly approaching! The month-long building challenge in Minecraft starts on 1 September!!! As part of our event will be a building competition throughout the month of September up to and including the weekend of the event. What: Minecraft Building Bryn Gwlad challenge Where: Bryn Gwlad hosted Minecraft server, Bryn Gwlad Discord server When: … Read more
The Bryn Gwlad Baronial Business meeting is tonight! 7pm – 830pm, Zoom, link below. This is a great way to see people, get updates on what’s in the works for the Barony, and hear opportunities for involvement. Join us tonight at 7pm (the meeting has usually run til about 8pm, but we have it blocked … Read more
Hey all! It’s come up a few times about having a QR code for us to use for the Baronial Website. I made one! This QR code will take you to the website home page. Feel free to use it anywhere you’d like! Want to make your own QR code? It’s super easy! This is … Read more
What is this? WALKING IN SOMEONE ELSE’S SHOESAwareness Training Activity (Feb 2019)Gigi Coulson, Interim Society DEI Officer This is an Awareness Training Activity created by Gigi Coulson. The activity consists of two parts: Reading the experiences and feedback shared by people on the following categories Comfortableness with the Climate of DEI in the SCA Do … Read more
Bryn Gwlad Event Steward – checking in! Activities lined up so far Event kick-off with Their Excellencies Bryn Gwlad Afternoon/Evening Court with Their Excellencies Live Classes! Join in for live classes taught by Bryn Gwlad and friends Heraldic Hunt! Find the answers to all of your heraldry, device, and name questions! Minecraft! We will be … Read more
Greetings, populace and friends of Bryn Gwlad! I am writing you to provide an update on the state of activities within the barony and our plans locally for when we will resume in-person activities. Currently, Bryn Gwlad just entered our second week at phase 1 on the Ansteorran Martialate Practices Reopen Plan. The officers of … Read more
The Chroniclers office is beginning the process of Archiving the newsletters. The plan is to digitize the physical copies we have over the course of the next 2 years. The spreadsheet will show the status of what we have physically and what is online. An online inventory should be completed by next week. The office … Read more
Equity and Inclusion 101DEI in the SCA Gigi Coulson, May 2019 Goals of the presentation: Build a shared understanding of the concepts of equity and inclusion Increase awareness of DEI in the Society Develop skills to promote equity and inclusion Sections of the presentation: Terms DEI Officer, SCA Mission, Core Values, Chivalric Virtues, Agreements we … Read more
Looking for some SCA time tonight? There are a few things you can jump into! Things happening tonight, 4 August 2020: Bryn Gwlad’s Virtual Populace Hangout starting around 7pm — hop into Discord for text, voice, and video chat New to discord? Check out these guides and join the Bryn Gwlad server here! Heraldic Consultation … Read more
your friendly neighborhood chronicler here. what have you been working on during this time. The halberd will be putting out a special edition which will include: Photos of you at home in garb projects you have been working on songs and poems favorite recipes mask making outreach projects All the things that have kept your … Read more
Hail and Well Met, dear Populace! Tomorrow is Kingdom Round Table, the event where we learn about and tend to the administrative side of our Society. The schedule can be found at the link below. If there isn’t a class you want or need to attend, please consider tuning in to the State of the … Read more
You’ve probably seen or heard the terms “diversity”, “equity”, and “inclusion” before. We’ve said them a number of times in this blog already. …but what do they actually mean? What does it mean to “be diverse” or “foster diversity?” Can you have a “diverse person?” What does it mean to “be inclusive?” What does it … Read more
I am Goldweard. I will be the new chronicler for our fair barony. For those who wish to know more about me, feel free to navigate to my SCA wiki page. I look forward to serving the barony during my tenure.
Greetings Bryn Gwlad! I have an update from the SCA’s board of directors concerning events for the rest of the year. To read their full resolution you can find it here. The long and short of it is there will be no in-person kingdom-level events through January 31st. I know this is disappointing but it … Read more
Looking to spend some time chatting with fellow Bryn Gwladers? Want an excuse to check out Discord before our event in October? Join us tonight (28 July) from 7pm til 9pm (ish) for our Tuesday night Populace Hangout! Who: Anyone in Bryn Gwlad, anyone in the SCA, anyone interested in socializing with usWhen: 7pm – … Read more
Greetings to the Barony and friends from your Event Autocrat! Short updates as to progress so far for event planning: The event webpage is now live: https://ansteorra.org/bryn-gwlad/the-virtual-hunt/ I’m drafting up the event announcement that I’ll send to Kingdom Chronicler I’ve started breaking out the activities we’ve got lined up for our virtual event I’ve followed … Read more
Greetings, populace! I know it has been hard not being able to meet in person. Practices have been halted and events cancelled or postponed while we do our part to ensure the pandemic gets under control, but there are still opportunities to see all your favorite Bryn Gwladers and Ansteorrans! Tonight is our monthly business … Read more
Good evening! Your neighborhood, friendly Bryn Gwlad Webminister here! I have been working on a project to establish an automatic cross-posting from our website blog to the Bryn Gwlad Email List. This will allow us to move one step closer to having a centralize source of Baronial Announcements and Info (the next step will be … Read more
Pursue your passion and discover a world of opportunity! Come learn about the martialate activities available here at the SCA! This includes heavy/chivalric fighting (think knights of Camelot), light/rapier fighting (think the three musketeers), target and combat archery, equestrian, thrown weapons (axes, knives and spears), and more! Teacher: Sir Maelgwyn Dda This is the 4th … Read more
July 15th 7:00pm Zoom class for information Heraldry style – questions about a NAME ? DEVICE? BADGE? VOLUNTEERING? VOICE HERALDING ? SUBMISSIONS? Come visit – see whats happening Sigrun de Birca is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting. Time: Jul 15, 2020 07:00 PM Central Time (US and Canada) Join Zoom Meetinghttps://us02web.zoom.us/j/4101260148?pwd=aE9LZUxlODEwdE9xRUpiQS9RZnlxdz09 Meeting ID: … Read more
Tune in for Kingdom court this Saturday, 11 June, where the King and Queen of Ansteorra will recognize the great works, skills, and deeds of the populace of Ansteorra! Court will be streamed via the Kingdom Facebook Page starting at 4pm Central! To find the link and details, you can always check our Baronial Calendar
Hello fellow brewers! I have recently gotten back into brewing and would like to hold an informal tasting over zoom if anyone would be interested. This is for The Austin area. Nicaize and Elen will be getting the supplies from me and passing them out to those interested. The zoom get together would be for … Read more
Greetings unto the friends and populace of Bryn Gwlad! Tomorrow, Saturday the 13th of June, is Kings College! Kings College is a class-focused event where you can attend discussions and demonstrations ranging from studies of historical events to how-to guides for historical candies to round tables discussing running events in the SCA. There are 12 … Read more
Lady Elspeth Bhorúma inghean uí Bhria recently taught a class about how to serve with disabilities in the SCA. The SCA is a volunteer organization; we are active; and most of our events and activities require/result in a lot of physical activity, a lot of moving around. This can make it a challenge or make … Read more
“The Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) Office of the SCA is committed to promoting the values of inclusion throughout the SCA. The focus is equity, which is just and fair inclusion into an organization in which all can participate, prosper, benefit, and reach their full potential.” https://www.sca.org/dei-office/ What do “diversity”, “equity”, and “inclusion” even mean? … Read more
The 1 June Newcomer Academy Costume/Persona Class was recorded! It is now available online for people to watch! The link below will direct you to the Zoom Recording. You do not need a Zoom account to watch the video. It’s approximately 1 hour and 25 minutes long. The full video is available here! Password: 7e$oE&0j
The 18 May Populace meeting was recorded and is now available online for people to watch! The link below will direct you to the Zoom Recording. You do not need a Zoom account to watch the video. It’s approximately 56 minutes long. The full video is available here! Password: 3j*r48.f
Good morrow to the Barony! We have a few activities that have been added to the calendar I want to draw your attention to. Check them out below! 19 May (tonight) – Populace in the Virtual Park1900 – 2100 CSTVoice/video chat in the Baronial Discord Server 24 May – Flameworks Guild Watch Party1400 – 1530 … Read more
One of the core features of WordPress is the blog. We have the ability to make announcements, blog posts, through our website to let the populace know of upcoming activities, recent changes, useful or educational information, and more. We still have to follow SCA policy, however, so I’ve summarized the relevant website policies here as … Read more
I am excited and honored to have been chosen by the Barony to fill the role of Event Steward for our upcoming Fall Baronial event. I recognize that we 5 months away from the event, and much could change in Austin, the surrounding cities, and the society between now and then that could impact this event. I intend to keep that close in mind as I continue forward, and I hope that this will be a fun and rewarding process regardless of what the final product will be!
My goal is to create an environment where we can learn, create, and play in the Dream that is the SCA!
I started the bare bones for the event website. Check it out if you’d like 🙂 I’m planning to keep pretty much all of the event resources accessible from that page. As much for my own sanity as I figure it’ll be useful for people to see what’s what. Gonna make a “contact the event steward” form soon so that it’ll be easy for people to contact me.
Next things I’m working on will be updating/fleshing out the theme ideas I’ve had so far and making those accessible to everyone. After that will be reaching out to champions and officers/guild leaders, and then hopefully scheduling a brainstorming session for the barony.
My goal is that by the end of May we will have a pretty good handle on what in-person competitions we want to plan for, what virtual alternatives we want to aim for, and a solid idea (or at least starting ideas) for how we want to incorporate the theme into our event.
Respectfully, Lady kolfinna inn kyrra Otarsdottir Event Steward for Fall Baronial 2020 Bryn Gwlad Webminister
Greetings from your friendly neighborhood hospitaler. I am going to start up a string of hump day posts to help you make it through the week with some SCA resources, tips, stories, videos, and other errata. I hope you find it useful. On Monday our Bryn Gwlad Newcomer’s Academy held it’s very first virtual class! … Read more
I don’t know about all of you, but I have been missing seeing my SCA family at guild meetings, fighter practice, and events. If you are like me I encourage you to check out this video from our neighboring Kingdom of Glenn Abhann. I hope to see everyone soon at one of our virtual events … Read more
This class will be virtual and will be available to view after, so if you can’t make it, no worries!
Atholl Brose (or Athol Brose, Athole Brose) is a Scottish drink made by mixing oatmeal, honey, whisky, and sometimes cream (particularly on festive occasions). This class will go over how to make this delicious drink and the different variations.
What you need for the class: – Whiskey – Oatmeal (preferably plain but whatever you have will work) – Honey – Secret Ingredient – Silver Spoon (optional)
Update for SCA101! As previously announced, the first class of the 2020 Bryn Glad Newcomer’s Academy will be held next Monday, May 4, 2020. Due to the plague ravaging the Current Middle Ages, we are moving this class online to Zoom! P.S. A reminder – this class will NOT be held in person at Nosh … Read more
Have you been searching for a way to keep up your combat skills while we are sheltering in place? Well, SCAdians all around have been putting together online classes, demos, and discussions that you can join in on! Knowne World SCA Virtual Fighter Practice (Facebook Group) SCA Virtual Classroom and Artisan Display (Facebook Group) Virtual … Read more
Join us for a virtual gathering of the populace! We will be using the Baronial Discord server and hanging out with voice and video! There are many voice channels for us to you, break out into small groups, share content with the group, or just enjoy the sounds of people talking. If you’re new to … Read more
Fall Baronial 2020 is the first weekend of October this year. We have had two presentations for event bids tonight during our Zoom Business Meeting.We are going to be using Survey Monkey to vote on which bid will be chosen.
If you want to look at the documents for each bid you can find them here on a Google Drive Folder;
The offices of Seneschal, Rapier Marshal, Minister of Children and Webminister are Open for Applications! Applications for Rapier Marshal are due by APRIL 30, 2020. Applications for Webminsiter are due by APRIL 30, 2020. Applications for Seneschal are due by MAY 31, 2020. Applications for Minister of Children are being accepted at any time. Want … Read more
Good evening Newcomers! In one weeks time (Monday, May 4) we will be hosting our first class of this years session of the Bryn Gwlad’s Newcomers Academy: SCA 101. Come learn the basics of what the SCA is all about! Due to the state of affairs in the current Middle Ages, instead of meeting at … Read more
Training provided if needed! Event will have Herald post station with snacks and water Need 2 book heralds to sit and help with questions and information (1 for each shift – AM and PM on Saturday) Need several List field heralds – depending on what the fighting schedule is – for Saturday and Sunday as … Read more
The April Clothier’s Guild Meeting will be held this Thursday — 23 April — via Discord from 6 to 9pm CST. Join the chat with other guild members, stay for a short time or the entire meeting, and look forward to live streams! Join the Discord server and introduce yourself! kolfinna inn kyrra OtarsdottirActing Bryn … Read more
Join us tonight, 31 March 2020, at 7pm for a virtual gathering of the Populace! We had our first-ever virtual business meeting last night via Zoom, and we’re going to continue our path into an online realm by using the BG Discord to gather the populace for voice chat, text chat, and just generally hanging out. There won’t be video for this chat, though individuals can screen share if there’s something you want to show everyone.
Grab a snack, grab a drink, consider ordering food from your favorite local establishment, and log into Discord tonight for social time with the Barony!
For all the archers that don’t have a range to visit or cannot shoot safely at home. Here are some exercises to help us maintain or build our strength. Stay safe and healthy. Looking forward to when we can all shoot together again. Practice will remain on hiatus until we receive word that it is safe to gather for shooting. Miss seeing all of you.
Assignment 6: take the best 5 images you created and make them even better!
This is all about post-processing using tools like Capture One, Photoshop, Lightroom, Camera RAW or whatever tool you prefer. Use skills you have or ask questions.I can help you with this at almost any skill level—seriously.
If you do not have a tool you like, most have free trials you can download.Capture One even has completely free versions if you use Sony or Fuji cameras.
Assignment 5: time to use the skills from 1-4. Create 5 great images of your chosen subject in good light!
So you have worked on finding good angles and perspectives for your subject. You have learned about light angles and how they look on your subject. You have explored how window light works (which contributes a lot to the use of strobes, if you have not tried that yet).
Now take your chosen subject and try to create five distinct images using what you learned in the first assignments.If your subject is a person or pet, how can you get the best or most interesting expressions?
If you are not already using RAW files on your camera, please start doing so. You can set your camera to shoot RAW plus jpeg, so you still have jpegs you might be used to. But, trust me, you will be happier in the future if you get in the habit of shooting RAW now. (Plus, you’ll want RAW files for the next assignment!)
This can be combined with assignment three to further explore window light. Or you can use the light-source from assignment two.
Grab something white and something black. A piece of poster board is ideal, but many items can work (hold up a t-shirt, paper, a bed sheet…be creative). Hold up either white or black item near your subject (start with opposite from window and then experiment.
What do you notice? How can you make the shadows lighter or darker? How many different ways can you make your subject look better or worse? Learning what doesn’t work is often as valuable as what does.
So this is fantastic for people, naturally, but window light is also fantastic for food or almost anything.
The relationship of the light source to the subject, as we learned in the last experiment, makes a difference. So does the angle and distance, as we learned from the first. So keep going as long as patience lasts and find out new things!
I hope all are well and finding ways to deal with our mutual isolation. Thank you to all who have been helping put out content for people to enjoy and to all the groups having virtual meetings. Connection is still needs, glad to see folks doing so.
Originally, we had announced that all SCA Official activities would not happen in Ansteorra until March 30. Given that the situation is what it is, and mostly that it is so fluid and not predictable, I, in agreement with the Crown, am going to change that statement to not include an end date. For now, we will continue the “no official activities” for as long as needed. We will wait and see how things are looking, we will comply with government directives. I will make sure to update as we move forward. Let me know if you have questions.
We are still planning on Coronation to happen, along with Queen’s Champion and King’s Champion, on May 9th. We have been given permission by Society to hold a Virtual Event for Coronation, if needed. This permission also includes the ability of the Crown to give awards at that time, up to and including Peerages. Hopefully, we will not have to do that, but it is good to already have permission if needed.
Take care of each other, stay safe. We are Ansteorra, we are stronger than anything this situation can throw at us. We will rise again.
Greetings, BG! Tomorrow evening [Thursday, 26 March 2020], at 7 PM on FB live, I’ll be teaching my Viking Treasure Chains (AKA Norse Festoons) class for Bonwicke’s A&S night. I hope you’ll make some time and tune in! I’ll be discussing the history of the festoons, extant examples from Norse graves, and how to make your own.
The March Business meeting for the Barony has been rescheduled for 30 March and it will be held virtually via Zoom. The officers will be having a test-run meeting tonight to make sure everything works without a hitch!
This month we will be meeting virtually via Zoom. You can download the app for your phone or tablet if you want to be able to speak and be visible. Otherwise you can just join the meeting via the link to watch and listen.https://zoom.us/j/7104142920 Meeting ID is 710 414 2920
Attention! Morina O’Donovan, from the Shire of the Shadowlands, will be hosting Embroidery 101 online via Discord, on Thursday March 26 at 7pm CST! Check out the announcement below. If you want to join, hop over to the #fiber channel in the Shadowlands Discord server. I will be hosting an Embroidery 101 class on Thursday … Read more
Assignment 2: Pick a single subject and a light source. Keep the subject and camera in the same place and move your light source to different places.
The light above or at least at the same height is “traditional” since the sun is above, but you should feel free to experiment with it. Play with light behind, change angles around the subject. Change angle up and down. Change the way the light faces if this can be changed. So many options.
Virus keeping you from going to events? Want to get your camera out and learn, practice, and discuss photography with other people? Well, the Bryn Gwlad Photographer’s Guild has an assignment series for you! Every few days, Maybe Knott (Guild Leader) will be posting assignments to the guild. Look for assignments posted here, and join … Read more
Announcement from the Bryn Gwlad Seneschal: UPDATE: All baronial activities are now cancelled until March 30th per our Kingdom Seneshcal. We will be notifying Sherwood that we will be suspending our participation for the season. Please stay tuned on details on when we will arrange to remove our booth and demo items out at Sherwood. … Read more
This has been a work in progress for some time now, but I am happy to announce that the Bryn Gwlad website on WordPress (this site, you’re on it!) is now live!
Please feel welcome to peruse the site. I’ve tried to have as much up-to-date content on here as possible. But, this is intended to be a living, growing, dynamic resource for our Barony.
If you see content that is missing, can’t find what you’re looking for, want to make an announcement, need to update calendar items, please submit feedback! There are links on each page that will allow you to submit feedback and request updates.
Lady kolfinna inn kyrra Otarsdottir Deputy Bryn Gwlad Webminister
Good day, good Gentles, and Welcome to the Fairest Barony in the Knowne World!
Let us extend the hand of friendship and fellowship to those brave individuals who have chosen to find out what all those people in costume are doing! We are people from all walks of life and careers: high-tech and low, college age, middle age, mom-and-dad age and children. But we all share the love of Things Medieval. We thrill to the stories of knights in shining armor and ladies fair, to minstrels singing heroic tales in the Great Hall—and we yearn to wear a sword, or don a flowing gown and veil and enter those stories. Here in the Society for Creative Anachronism you can do exactly that! Come and join us; be a part of our Baronial Champions Tournament where armor glitters and knights compete for honor and glory. Or our Feast of Candlemas, where artisans and scholars display their work, where song, poetry and dance abound, and candlelight flickers over a feast fit for a king! Welcome, my friends, to this great barony, and the Current Middle Ages.
Update from the Candlemas Class Coordinator: The Candlemas 2020 — Festa della Candelora — class schedule is not available! There are two tabs on the sheet below, one with the class listing and one with the class schedule. Colors correlate to areas where the classes will be held to be indicated with a banner. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1kLz48XoWU7nr6KJyBb-XDg3XGI1D4BH9LygvNE-YeaU/edit?usp=sharing … Read more
Heads up to those who were interested or planning to attend the Scribal night on 23 Jan. That activity night has been cancelled. Keep an eye on the calendar or for announcements for upcoming scribal nights!
Years ago, I was invited to attend Pennsic War by a friend of a friend who was a vendor. This was my first introduction to the Society. It was the equivalent of drinking from the firehose. After a week of that craziness, I was overwhelmed, but I wanted to know more. I’d always been a fan of the Renaissance Fairs, and thought that this was just an extension of that. I was pleased to find that it was… and wasn’t!
Below is a short definition of what some common acronyms used around the SCA B&B – Baron & Baroness MKA – Mundanely Known As (used to reference a member’s mundane name as opposed to their society name)
The Kingdom of Ansteorra is made up of multiple branches representing different locations in the mundane world. Ansteorra is broken into Northern, Central, and Southern regions. This is strictly to provide geographical separation, but all are ruled by the Crown. Within that Kingdom are various branches overseeing their respective regions. Bryn Gwlad is the region … Read more
Branches of the SCA are setup based around a geographical area or an institution. Within the Kingdom of Ansteorra, these are the designations. Kingdom: area ruled by a King and Queen Principality: area within a kingdom ruled by Prince and Princess Barony: area administered by a Baron and/or Baroness, the ceremonial representative(s) of the Crown … Read more