Language Resources

Helpful links for Foreign Language Period Books for the Advanced Researcher

This is NOT something that is required in documentation.  This is just for those few curious overachievers.   English language resources are just fine. 

From time to time you find an original foreign language or middle English resource.  Though a modern dictionary can assist, here are some links that can help.


John Florio’s 1611 Italian/English Dictionary and his smaller 1598 edition. can assist in reading transcriptions

.Archaic Italian Verb Conjugations – For verbs you cannot find in a modern Italian dictionary.


Randle Cotgrave’s 1611 French/English Dictionary – Can assist in reading transcriptions.

Archaic English

Old English Dictionary – Resource from the University of Toronto

Middle English Dictionary – Resource from the University of Michigan

German Languages

Various German Resources – As Germany was not technically a place in Germany, here is a list of resources to assist you with the many types you may encounter.


Ancient Latin – For ancient Latin information from the University of Notre Dame.  This is not medieval or “church” Latin

Free Medieval or Ecclesiastical.  Free resources dictionaries are more incomplete than pay ones.  Try the University of Oklahoma’s Medieval Latin  for headword searches.  If you read French this is free from the Sorbonne and quite complete.  Oxford has some specific subject lists here for free and some additional resources.  

Paid Medieval or Ecclesiastical Latin – You can get some small format medieval dictionaries online from Amazon or another bookseller.  They will get you through most simple lookups.  For the most complete resource there is the Oxford  Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources .  They have it in three print volume for $650.  They don’t say how much the subscription actually is, which is usually a bad sign for the thrifty researcher.  Here is the page to inquire on the subscription and if you can figure out how to subscribe you probably do need the whole book.

 Updated - Biatrichi Canzionari di Palermo 5/2/2018